Common Mold Library

Click on the mold genre below to be taken to its description:

 

Alternaria

Colony Morphology
  • Usually grows rapidly
  • Pigment — grey, green/brown, brown/black
  • Texture — wooly
Microscopic Appearance:
  • Hyphae — septate, brown
  • Conidiophores — septate, brown, simple or branched
  • Conidia (spores) — septate, brown, muriform, oval, chains or single
Laboratory Identification:
  • Air
  • Direct/Surface
  • Bulk
Allergenic Health Effects:
  • Common Allergen
  • Hay Fever
  • Asthma
Pathogenic Health Effects:
  • Yes — immunocompromised individuals (rare occurrence)
Toxins Produced:
  • Alternariatoxicosis
  • Alterariosis
Image: Alternaria mold

 

Ascospores

Colony Morphology
  • Multiple different genera included
  • Colony appearance will vary based on genera/species
Microscopic Appearance:
  • Spores are produced in an ascus (sac — like structure)
  • Multiple spores which vary based on genera/species
Laboratory Identification:
  • Air
  • Direct/Surface
  • Bulk
Allergenic Health Effects:
  • Common Allergen
Pathogenic Health Effects:
  • Potential Health Hazard (rare occurrence)
Toxins Produced:
  • Yes — specific to the genera/species
Image: Ascospores mold

 

Aspergillus

Colony Morphology
  • Multiple different species included, each with a varying colony morphology
Microscopic Appearance:
  • Conidiophores end with a sac — like structure, phialides are attached to this sac — like structure (uniserate) or on cells called metula (biserate), and conidia are attached to phialides in chains
Laboratory Identification:
  • Air
  • Direct/Surface
  • Bulk
Allergenic Health Effects:
  • Allergen
  • Asthma
Pathogenic Health Effects:
  • Yes — reported amongst immunocompromised individuals, as well as normal hosts (rare occurrence in normal hosts)
Toxins Produced:
  • Yes — specific to the species
  • Examples include aflatoxins and ochratoxin
Image: Aspergillus mold

 

Aureobasidium

Colony Morphology
  • Usually grows rapidly
  • Pigment — white, pale pink/yellow, brown/black in mature colonies
Microscopic Appearance:
  • Hyphae — septate, hyaline to brown (with maturation)
  • Blastoconidia — hyaline
  • Arthroconidia — brown (mostly), single — celled or bicellular
Laboratory Identification:
  • Air
  • Direct/Surface
  • Bulk
Allergenic Health Effects:
  • Allergen
  • Upper Respiratory Irritant
  • Asthma (rare)
  • Hay Fever (rare)
Pathogenic Health Effects:
  • Unknown
Toxins Produced:
  • Not known to produce mycotoxins
Image: Aureobasidium mold

 

Basidiospores

Colony Morphology
  • Multiple different genera included (mostly mushroom types)
  • Colony appearance will vary based on genera/species
Microscopic Appearance:
  • Spores are produced by basidia
  • Spores have one nucleus and have an oblong shape
  • Multiple spores which vary based on genera/species
Laboratory Identification:
  • Air
  • Direct/Surface
  • Bulk
Allergenic Health Effects:
  • Allergen
  • Upper Respiratory Irritant
  • Asthma
  • Hay Fever
Pathogenic Health Effects:
  • Rarely considered a pathogen
Toxins Produced:
  • Yes — specific to the genera/species
Image: Basidiospores mold

 

Beltrania

Colony Morphology
  • Pigment — brown, black
  • Texture — velvet — like
Microscopic Appearance:
  • Hyphae — septate, brown
  • Conidia — single — celled with separating midline
Laboratory Identification:
  • Air
  • Direct/Surface
  • Bulk
Allergenic Health Effects:
  • Unknown
Pathogenic Health Effects:
  • Unknown
Toxins Produced:
  • Unknown
Image: Beltrania mold

 

Bipolaris*

Colony Morphology
  • Usually grows rapidly
  • Texture — soft or fluffy appearance
  • Pigment — whitish, dark olive/black on surface and reverse
Microscopic Appearance:
  • Hyphae — septate, brown
  • Conidiophore — brown, knee — like bends
  • Poroconidia — brown, spindle shaped
Laboratory Identification:
  • Air
  • Direct/Surface
  • Bulk
Allergenic Health Effects:
  • Allergen
  • Upper Respiratory Irritant
  • Asthma
Pathogenic Health Effects:
  • Yes — reported amongst immunocompromised individuals, as well as normal hosts
Toxins Produced:
  • Sterigmatocystin
Image: Bipolaris mold

 

Botrytis

Colony Morphology
  • Usually grows rapidly
  • Texture — wooly
  • Pigment — white, grey/brown on surface, dark on reverse
Microscopic Appearance:
  • Hyphae — septate, hyaline to brown
  • Conidiophores — large, septate, brown, branches at the tips comprised of vesicles
  • Conidia (blastoconidia) — hyaline or pale brown, single — celled, round/oval
Laboratory Identification:
  • Air
  • Direct/Surface
  • Bulk
Allergenic Health Effects:
  • Common Allergen
  • Asthma
Pathogenic Health Effects:
  • Unknown
Toxins Produced:
  • Not known to produce mycotoxins
Image: Botrytis mold

 

Chaetomium

Colony Morphology
  • Usually grows rapidly
  • Texture — wooly
  • Pigment — white, grey/olive on surface, pale on reverse
Microscopic Appearance:
  • Hyphae — septate, hyaline to pale brown
  • Perithecia (fruiting bodies) brown/black, round/ovoid, encompassed in long spine — like setae
  • Ascospores — brown, single — celled, usually lemon — shaped
Laboratory Identification:
  • Air
  • Direct/Surface
  • Bulk
Allergenic Health Effects:
  • Allergen
Pathogenic Health Effects:
  • Yes — rare occurrence
Toxins Produced:
  • Not known to produce mycotoxins
Image: Chaetomium mold

 

Cladosporium

Colony Morphology
  • Slow to rapid growth
  • Texture — velvet — like
  • Pigment — olive brown/brownish black on surface and reverse
Microscopic Appearance:
  • Hyphae — septate, brown
  • Conidiophores — brown, usually septate
  • Blastoconidia — brown, composed in delicate chains, bicellular and shield — shaped at the base of chains, single — celled and ellipsoidal/round at the tips
Laboratory Identification:
  • Air
  • Direct/Surface
  • Bulk
Allergenic Health Effects:
  • Common Allergen
  • Upper Respiratory Irritant
  • Asthma
  • Hay Fever
Pathogenic Health Effects:
  • Yes — immunocompromised individuals (rare occurrence)
Toxins Produced:
  • Not known to produce mycotoxins
Image: Cladosporium mold

 

Curvularia

Colony Morphology
  • Usually grows rapidly
  • Texture — wooly
  • Pigment — white, olive brown on surface and reverse
Microscopic Appearance:
  • Hyphae — septate, brown
  • Conidiophores — brown, knee — like bends, simple or branched
  • Poroconidia have distinct curves, brown, multiseptate with a central cell larger and darker than other cells
Laboratory Identification:
  • Air
    Direct/Surface
  • Bulk
Allergenic Health Effects:
  • Allergen
Pathogenic Health Effects:
  • Yes — immunocompromised individuals (rare occurrence)
Toxins Produced:
  • Not known to produce mycotoxins
Image: Curvularia mold

 

Epicoccum

Colony Morphology
  • Usually grows rapidly
  • Texture — wooly/felty
  • Pigment — yellow, orange, red, brown on surface, deep brown on reverse
Microscopic Appearance:
  • Hyphae — septate, hyaline to brownish
  • Conidiophores — short, grouped on tight clusters (sporodochia)
  • Conidia — brown, muriform, irregular — walled, round — like
Laboratory Identification:
  • Air
  • Direct/Surface
  • Bulk
Allergenic Health Effects:
  • Allergen
Pathogenic Health Effects:
  • Unknown
Toxins Produced:
  • Not known to produce mycotoxins
Image: Epicoccum mold

 

Fusarium

Colony Morphology
  • Usually grows rapidly
  • Texture — wooly/sometimes mucus — like
  • Pigment — white, yellow, pink, purple, or pale brown on surface, pale, red, violet, brown, blue on reverse
Microscopic Appearance:
  • Hyphae — septate, hyaline
  • Phialides — long or short, cylindrical, simple or branched
  • Microconidia — single — celled, sometimes bicellular, hyaline, ovoid/ellipsoid in chains
  • Macroconidia — curved, multicellular w/ a foot cell at the base
Laboratory Identification:
  • Air
  • Direct/Surface
  • Bulk
Allergenic Health Effects:
  • Unknown
Pathogenic Health Effects:
  • Yes — reported amongst immunocompromised individuals, as well as normal hosts
Toxins Produced:
  • Trichothecene toxins
  • Vomotoxin
  • T — 2 toxin
  • Fumosin
  • Zearalenone toxin
Image: Fusarium mold

 

Memnoniella

Colony Morphology
  • Grows moderately rapid
  • Texture — powdery
  • Pigment — white, pink, orange, black on surface, pale, orange, pink, black on reverse
Microscopic Appearance:
  • Conidiophores dark, simple, comprised at the tip are clusters of thick, short phialides
  • Conidia consist in long chains, dark, single — celled
Laboratory Identification:
  • Air
  • Direct/Surface
  • Bulk
Allergenic Health Effects:
  • Unknown
Pathogenic Health Effects:
  • Unknown
Toxins Produced:
  • Trichothecene toxins
Image: Memnoniella mold

 

Myxomycetes

Colony Morphology
  • Myxomycetes do not grow on fungal media
Microscopic Appearance:
  • Spores are generally round with rough walls that can be spiny or warted
Laboratory Identification:
  • Air
  • Direct/Surface
  • Bulk
Allergenic Health Effects:
  • Common Allergen
  • Asthma
  • Hay Fever
Pathogenic Health Effects:
  • Unknown
Toxins Produced:
  • None
Image: Myxomycetes mold

 

Nigrospora

Colony Morphology
  • Usually grows very rapidly
  • Texture — wooly
  • Pigment — white/black on surface and reverse
Microscopic Appearance:
  • Hyphae — septate, hyaline
  • Conidiophores — hyaline, short and inflated
  • Conidia — black, single — celled, ovoid/ellipsoidal, slightly horizontally flattened with smooth walls
Laboratory Identification:
  • Air
  • Direct/Surface
  • Bulk
Allergenic Health Effects:
  • Common Allergen
Pathogenic Health Effects:
  • Unknown
Toxins Produced:
  • Not known to produce mycotoxins
Image: Nigrospora mold

 

Penicillium/Aspergillus

Colony Morphology
  • Usually grows moderately rapid/rapidly
  • Texture — velvet — like/powdery
  • Pigment — green, blue — green, grey — green, white, yellow or pinkish on surface, pale/yellowish, sometimes red or brown on reverse
Microscopic Appearance:
  • Hyphae — septate, hyaline
  • Conidiophores — simple or branched
  • Phialides are bunched in brush — like clusters (penicillin) at the tips of conidiophores
  • Conidia — single — celled, round/ovoid, hyaline or pigmented, rough or smooth walls in chains
Laboratory Identification:
  • Air
  • Direct/Surface
  • Bulk
Allergenic Health Effects:
  • Common Allergen
  • Asthma
  • Hay Fever
  • Pneumonitis
Pathogenic Health Effects:
  • Yes — immunocompromised individuals (rare occurrence)
Toxins Produced:
  • Yes — specific to the genera/species
Image: Penicillium mold

 

Pithomyces

Colony Morphology
  • Usually grows very rapidly
  • Texture — wooly
  • Pigment — pale/dark grey or brown on surface, dark brown on reverse
Microscopic Appearance:
  • Hyphae — septate, hyaline to brown
  • Conidiophores are very similar to the vegetative hyphae
  • Conidia — muriform, brown, ellipsoidal/club — shaped, with smooth or rough walls
Laboratory Identification:
  • Air
  • Direct/Surface
  • Bulk
Allergenic Health Effects:
  • Unknown
Pathogenic Health Effects:
  • Unknown
Toxins Produced:
  • Sporidesmin
Image: Pithomyces mold

 

Rusts

Colony Morphology
  • Rusts do not grow on fungal media
Microscopic Appearance:
  • Spore types include basidiospores, pynciospores, urediospores, and teliospores
Laboratory Identification:
  • Air
  • Direct/Surface
  • Bulk
Allergenic Health Effects:
  • Common Allergen
  • Asthma
  • Hay Fever
Pathogenic Health Effects:
  • Unknown
Toxins Produced:
  • None
Image: Rusts mold

 

Scopulariopsis

Colony Morphology
  • Grows moderately rapid
  • Texture — velvet — like/powdery
  • Pigment — white, cinnamon, greyish, black on surface, yellowish/black on reverse
Microscopic Appearance:
  • Hyphae — septate, hyaline or dark
  • Conidiophores with annellides hyaline or dark, simple or branched
  • Conidia — hyaline or dark grey, single — celled, pyriform with truncate bases, smooth or rough walled in chains
Laboratory Identification:
  • Air
  • Direct/Surface
  • Bulk
Allergenic Health Effects:
  • Common Allergen
  • Alveolitis
Pathogenic Health Effects:
  • Yes — immunocompromised individuals (rare occurrence)
Toxins Produced:
  • Not known to produce mycotoxins
Image: Scopulariopsis mold

 

Stachybotrys

Colony Morphology
  • Grows moderately rapid
  • Texture — powdery
  • Pigment — white, pink, orange, black on surface, pale, orange, pink, black on reverse
Microscopic Appearance:
  • Hyphae — septate, hyaline
  • Conidiophore — hyaline or pigmented, simple or branched, smooth or rough walls
  • Phialides hyaline or brown, ellipsoidal, comprised in groups of 3 — 10 at the tips of conidiophores
  • Conidia — black single — celled, ellipsoidal, smooth to rough walled, located in slimy groups at the tips of phialides
Laboratory Identification:
  • Air
  • Direct/Surface
  • Bulk
Allergenic Health Effects:
  • Unknown
Pathogenic Health Effects:
  • Unknown
Toxins Produced:
  • Satratoxin H
  • Trichothecene toxins
Image: Stachybotrys mold

 

Stemphylium

Colony Morphology
  • Usually grows slowly
Microscopic Appearance:
  • Conidia — dark, transverse and longitudinal septa, ellipsoidal/ovoid with a constriction at the major septa
Laboratory Identification:
  • Air
  • Direct/Surface
  • Bulk
Allergenic Health Effects:
  • Common Allergen
  • Asthma
  • Hay Fever
Pathogenic Health Effects:
  • Yes — immunocompromised individuals (rare occurrence)
Toxins Produced:
  • Not known to produce mycotoxins
Image: Stemphylium mold

 

Torula

Colony Morphology
  • Grows Gradually
  • Original colony is white shaped like an arrowhead (mostly)
  • Circle or heat shaped colonies
  • Pigment — Grey, white to brown with age
Microscopic Appearance:
  • Conidiophores — short, dark, simple or branched
  • Conidia — one to many celled, round, dark, in chains
Laboratory Identification:
  • Air
  • Direct/Surface
  • Bulk
Allergenic Health Effects:
  • Common Allergen
  • Asthma
  • Hay Fever
Pathogenic Health Effects:
  • Unknown
Toxins Produced:
  • Torula herbarum
Image: Torula mold

 

Ulocladium

Colony Morphology
  • Grows moderately rapid
  • Texture — wooly/cottony
  • Pigment — olive brown/black on surface and reverse
Microscopic Appearance:
  • Hyphae — septate, brown
  • Conidiophores — brown, knee — like bends
  • Conidia (poroconidia) — brown, muriform, obvoid/ellipsoidal, smooth or rough walls, usually singly
Laboratory Identification:
  • Air
  • Direct/Surface
  • Bulk
Allergenic Health Effects:
  • Common Allergen
  • Asthma
  • Hay Fever
Pathogenic Health Effects:
  • Yes — immunocompromised individuals (rare occurrence)
Toxins Produced:
  • Unknown
Image: Ulocladium mold

 

Zygomycetes

Colony Morphology
  • Multiple different genera included
  • Colony appearance will vary based on genera/species
Microscopic Appearance:
  • Broad hyphae, aseptate, or rarely septate
  • Can include rhizoids and stolons
  • Sporangiophores are comprised of sporangia on the ends, which house the sporangiospores
Laboratory Identification:
  • Air
  • Direct/Surface
  • Bulk
Allergenic Health Effects:
  • Common Allergen
  • Asthma
  • Hay Fever
  • Pneumonitis
Pathogenic Health Effects:
  • Yes immunocompromised individuals (rare occurrence)
Toxins Produced:
  • Unknown
Image: Zygomycetes mold

 

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